The Cognitive Tradeoff Hypothesis

Am 5 Dez 2018 veröffentlicht
Humans are the only Earthlings with complex language. But at what cost was that ability acquired? In this episode, I visit Tetsuro Matsuzawa to learn about his influential cognitive tradeoff hypothesis.
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KOMMENTARE

  • This video is really fascinating and blew my mind.

  • Would have been so much better if when Michel realized he wasn't getting any apples while he played the game he just ripped his shirt off, started howling, pooped in his hand and threw it at the glass😂😂😂

  • I will not pay to watch youtube videos. No matter how hard you tease me. Thanks for the free episode.

  • Perhaps this is because they dont know what numbers are.

  • Does learning new language effect memory & how?

  • How come chimpanzee learned number in increasing order?

  • Evolution theory is not true Its only hypothesis

  • 8:07 there were many other species that also had to collaborate to avoid predation, but they did not develop complex language. So this hypothesis is not really grounded.

  • my question is how long has Ayumi been participating in this game? Like teaching dogs tricks. Perhaps your one day wasn't enough to train you, but you made strides of improvement.

  • 2:25 chimpanzee is looking like it is holding another chimpanzee head, or is it just me?

  • My memory is far worse than Michael's but what I'd try to do with the 9 numerals task is to translate from a more abstract kind of memory, remembering where the numbers are, to a more practical one, such as using hand movement to remember it. It works for me quite well, albeit in specific tasks.

  • I cant be the only one wanting to know how the hell chimps know the numerical order?!

    • they probably learned over time, through a punishment and reward system.

  • I heat you when don’t have translations arap

    • *I hate you when you don’t have Arabian translations

  • 2:24 well animals could have developed language. But it’s hard to tell what they are saying. Bees in different hives across different countries have different “dialects”. Certain species of birds learn to sing from other birds. Much like how humans learn to speak language as they are growing up.

    • It's nowhere near as complicated. Notice how at the start of the video he didn't say they can't communicate, he said they can only talk about the here and now

  • and how is this abstract thinking going to just spontaneously show up

  • Skylab? Oh god, Terminator and Planet of the Apes were both right!

  • Hey Michael I love your videos, I've been watching since around 2012, and I really hope you do more of the uploads on Vsauce like you used to do. You're so much fun to watch and I really learn a lot too, keep up all the great content!

  • Hey Michael, do an episode about Peweiepie !

  • "Ayumu chimpanzee mode" sounds like super saiyan! :D

  • Wait... how do the chimps no which order numbers go in?

    • Rdawgs they learn over time, adding more and more numbers.

    • Well how do you...?

  • I got DE-tv red just for mindfield

  • We are inque oh wait..

  • Can any of the savant beat ayumu?

  • only show on youtube red worth watching. besides scaring pewdiepie of course

  • Lol he could have paused the video

  • I cant imagine how long it took to train the chimps to do this task vs Michal a human understanding the task within seconds. I dont think we lost anything it's just an area we dont need to use often and could easily be mastered by a human where as you could prob never teach the chimp to speak which is the so called trade off. It must be nice to have the GNP capita of a large country in a place only the size of California to be able to build such places and do tests like that in the video. Also im sad Vsauce is forever Premium :(

  • if sharing makes us human, why arent we all communist?

  • I really like the tradeoff hypothesis although I'm pretty sure it's wrong: Memorizing multiple objects(branches of a tree!) and their shapes and using them at fast speed in a specific order is a(very) big advantage if you are trying to climb very fast/efficient through the trees. We don't need that so that's why we lost it... if you have ever tried to speed climb an unknown wall you will know that the mind (fast recognition and memorization of holds) of an ape would definitely be of great advantage for this task.

  • link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10071-008-0206-8 Not the same amount of practice. Also the guy doesn't seem to like humans that much berating Micheal on everything he did.

  • wow

  • zis video is fleaking awesome

  • What about mute people?

  • Subsribe to ne plzz

  • Hold up! How do they know numbers and to count then and how they sync

  • Pls start free videos again

  • what if ayumu is just a chimp-genius who can't really represent the group..

  • You give a speedrunner or esports gamer this test they could do it no problem. Just like the chimp that is thier specialty

  • NO way I could NOT do it !!!

  • I call shenanigans. I want to see how many patterns these chimps are exposed to. I'm not doubting they have a better memory than humans but I don't care what animal you are, you wouldn't have a chance for ur eyes to look at each numbers position in .5 seconds.

  • If we train a young kid from birth I think the kid would be at the same speed

  • Your first error is to assume that humans can't get to the same point as that with just a bit of practice and "unlearning" how to think linguistically. Your theory of a cognitive trade-off makes no sense and fails miserably.

  • 19:36 when you find out ur adopted

  • i fuckin love chimps

  • look at deh sphidah mohnkeyyyyyy

  • This is so much of a half-assed History channel kind of show, all with questionable hypothesis and blurry conclusions it's a shame someone so science, and logic driven like Michael is doing it. Michael always gave us proved knowledge based on facts and with reliable sources.

  • Asians may be smart but we're smarter than their animals Asian Chimpanzee: hold my beer

  • Dear Vsauce, Can you please make a video about the psychology of people wanting biological kids VS adoption? I can't have kids and the prospect of adoption has ruined two relationships even though I'm only in my early 20's. Men seem to be fixated on the idea of wanting to pass on their DNA to a far greater degree than women and I'd like to understand it more. Thanks Xx

  • That one time you don’t have premium but can still watch mind field episodes.

  • Monks use to take vows of silence to improve focus. We should have a national sign language everyone shut up day. Would be the only holiday no one vocalizes and I would celebrate it. They would also do this with blind folds as well. By limiting one sense it increases the others. We rely to much on what we hear and are always imagining our future. Monkeys just instinctively respond to the now with no concept of the future. Monkeys are the monks of the trees, for the old idol of monkeys that see now evil, hear no evil, do no evil would teach us much if people realize we are blinded by an abundance of information for the smartest and wisest man says nothing. Also I believe we didnt come from monkeys because our DNA is 98% in common, we are also 97.5% a blood worm. That 2% alien DNA is what makes us special and different than any monkey for our eyes and brains are far more advanced. If we did come from monkeys we had to become aquatic at some point in order to lose our hair. Also would account for making us weaker since in water things are lighter. All mammals with little hair spend much time in the water. Monkeys fear water because they sink due to no body fat. So I try to keep a open mind as to how we could have adapted into what we call humanity now. I think the ancient alien idea is just as believable that some alien race landed here and uploaded there DNA into the closest Biped they could find that could handle the upgrade without losing its Alpha status in the animal kingdom, thus ensuring the DNA will survive and explains why monkeys haven't progressed to neanderthals again by random mutation. Other idea is cosmic radiation mutation, but it wouldn't change the bone structure of the eye socket nor would our feet be straight. We would have thumbs on our feet and be way stronger had we evolved in just the trees. Lucy the monkey they traced our DNA back to was only 98% in common with us. So this proves monkeys haven't changed DNA but they have adapted with time yet the base code remains the same if you study RNA and DNA. This is my own theory so take it with a grain of salt but ask the Hippo or Elephant why they arn't hairy. Our brains are more in common with dolphins truth be known. my 2cents. Love peace and prosperity and enjoyed the show! Grateful fan - Josh

  • Kïłł mę, płeåšë. Møm fôüñd łhė põōp śōçk. T-T

  • POWERFUL MESSAGE!

  • Click the numbers! To beat... numbers!

  • Hold on a second. I think this research can really be elaborated. We humans use strategies like mnemonics, flowcharts, and other methods to memorize unrelated information. What devices or techniques do chimpanzees use? You see, if we tap into that (assuming such a thing exists) we could harness their mental power. But there's one more thing. We humans developed these techniques due to our less capacity of memory, whereas chimps may not have to had done such a thing. Mabye their natural capacity itself was sufficient.

    • Weather then memerorizing the numbers left to wright micheal looked for them in order of 1 2 3 4 and so on

  • How do they get the order right?

  • Chimps can, over time, can learn how to remember and identify the placement of digits 0-9 in a split second. Humans can, over time, learn how to remember and identify the placement music notes, pressing up to 10 keys on a piano, also in a split second. These seem -- to me at least -- to be similar skills, except I would say that playing the piano is FAR more difficult. Is this really a case of a mental feat that chimps can do that humans can't?

    • muscle memory

    • Well, recognizing music is a language skill. And children under the age of 6 have much higher rates of photographic memory. That's the tradeoff hypothesis: that humans and chimps have a similar brain region for photographic memory, except humans mostly use it only for language skills.

    • freeideas the problem with humans is I always saw the eyes of micheal darting across the screen to look for numbers in numerical order weather then left to wright and no human can memorize 10 notes in less then 7/10 of a second

  • Subscribe ti Pewdiepie

  • These chimps are paid actors

  • Far out more please yea.

  • Is it certain, that this test is about memory? When you showed Ayumu's test at the beginning, I only even registered 3 numbers. It's hard to recognize 9 symbols in a split second. Also it would seem to make more sense to me, if chimpanzees preserved the skill to quickly recognize patterns (as in the example with counting predators, and making a quick fight-or-flight decision, which seems to be more about pattern recognition); more so than it does with memory.

  • Kicked out from forest like Adam kicked out from garden .Since his memory was bad just forgot forbiden tree.. lol

  • How do they know how to count though?

  • vsauce you should know better than to show us linear evolution, show a phylogenetic tree

  • 22:05 the best part

  • I want to see Tetsuro Matsuzawa do it

  • conheci o canal só agora kk🤦‍♂️🙀 muito top

  • It's so interesting!👍😆 P.S. I love Japan!)

  • Where could i download this software so we can try? I think its like typing, with practice, we can cruise too.. Not sold on this video.. Also, Michael knows the camera is watching, DE-tv the company will be watching, the editor will see it and the rest of the world will too, so many things getting him out of "the zone".. anyways.. whatev'....

  • the monolith gave us language

  • Hey Michael vsauce here

  • I would unronically watch every episode of this if was free

  • 4:55 "look at monkeys" 5:01 "cameraman shows great ape" Remember kids: Monkey have tails, apes do not.

  • 0:32 my team in league of legends

  • My mom said I look like a chimp so yea I know what to say when she tell me that

  • What about some marine mammals languages and cognitive abilities? Somehow I failing to see the differences between “humans” and “animals” more pronounced than differences between two animal kinds.

  • try memorising it as a picture not as 9 numbers in 9 different spots while figuring out the numerical order .

  • I think Dr. Matsuzawa's research is quite interesting, and his experimental setup is quite good. I am thoroughly impressed he developed a method of training chips to be able to develop cognitively and to demonstrate that development in a consistent, repeatable way. However what was shown here _at best_ demonstrates consistency with the hypothesis, and nothing more. Michael's failure to reproduce Ayumi's speed at the game demonstrates nothing. Chips are recognized as having impressive cognitive ability (at least within the animal kingdom). Dr. Matsuzawa's research demonstrates that chimp's can be effectively trained to perform tasks (to my knowledge this was already known and demonstrated, and not just for chimps!). Ayumi has been playing this game presumably since it was able to climb into the box along with its mother. This could be many months, to many years (exact age was not specified) of exposure to this training paradigm. During this time Ayumi started off slowly and with a low number of digits and then progressed to the blistering fast pace with a high number of digits. Given a chimp's aforementioned ability to respond to training, this should have been expected. What should also have been expected, is Michael's _inability_ to reproduce this precise end state ability (the speed and accuracy) his first time playing this game. It is not surprising that he was unable to match the speed or accuracy of the highest performing chimp, as he has undergone *no* training whatsoever. Additionally, there are signs he was progressing himself fairly quickly. His times generally were trending down, and his accuracy was trending up (he completed the last puzzle of the set, also in the fastest time). Again, not shocking as his repeated exposure to the tests were serving as training for the subsequent test. I don't dismiss this research or its corresponding hypothesis in its entirety because I understand that it is possible in the associated publications they did comparative trials of one form or another (rates of learning, top end performance, etc.) showing chimps with equivalent training times as their human counterparts were consistently outperforming these humans. However I am being generous here because the claim/hypothesis, though intriguing and with evidence demonstrating consistency, is in my opinion not actually being tested with what was shown here; and hence I am speculating as to what _else_ has been done that was not shown. Again, at best, this research presentation demonstrated that chimps can be trained (already known) and with that training they can out perform humans with no training (impressive but not all that unexpected). However without evidence showing humans can not perform at or above this level, with a corresponding amount of training time, I assert the hypothesis remains thoroughly untested.

  • What type of watch is that on Michael's wrist?

  • 4:55 "Look at monkeys" _ Dr. Desktop Matsuzawa 2019

  • I wonder if this is why people on the autistic spectrum can sometimes excel at this sort of task, because of the lack of development of, or impaired, language ability.

  • my man look like hes off to gaykumes circumcision

  • I got here from ApeSex Legends

  • 23:29 I more so *know* what I'm supposed to see in dreams. I can't see the cheetah, but I convince myself I do.

  • 5:50 Not to be confused with that one spacecraft.

  • humans can easily do that with a small practice..we can have multiple languages and photographic memories..

  • Was this test run for people who learned their letters at age 9-10 (about as late as possible)? It is well known that learning to read and write lessens your ability to memorize things (unless you are weird, like Art Benjamin or Marilu Henner), and early reading reduces it even more than normal (age 6) or late initial reading age.

  • Mind blown.

  • @Vsauce, How do the chimpanzees learn the sequence of the numbers?

  • my mind has been blown!!!!!

  • Ok. That's it. Time to subscribe.

  • *look* *at* *spider* *monkey*

  • Wtf michael?

  • 19:21 *_Ayumu_* (after seeing this) : _Aa aa uu uu_ ( *Translation* : Yeah Michael that could help beginners)

  • your DoppelgangeR de-tv.net/ch/UChpZzbYdeyO1is7-xGJsw8Q

  • Has this experiment been performed with autistic savants? If they can perform at the level of the chimps then perhaps a brain scan could be used to compare the physical differences with an average brain.

  • Poetic that we got kicked out of the trees and now we run the world

  • The only part of this that amazes me is how the chimps can recognize and understand our numeric system. They recognize the symbols and their order. Pretty amazing, I wonder if they could be taught a basic pictogram language.

  • we defended our existence.. so we developed focused observation they ruled over an area so the defense was not that much... they needed to focus on multiple subjects to achieve their goals such as the threats in the bush.. they were strong , aggressive so they would fight everyone evading their territory. we were weak , so we had to plan to survive

  • I see based on many comments that it's easier to critique than to create

  • if there were figures and you have to draw them.. you might be able to draw 1 or 2 with much more details where as a champ would draw all the figures at the exact same location they were before disappearing, they won't be able to draw any details

  • we notice more about one but can't focus on others they focus on all... can't notice even a single one as better as we do