What is CRISPR?

Am 18 Feb 2016 veröffentlicht
In this video Paul Andersen explains how the CRISPR/Cas immune system was identified in bacteria and how the CRISPR/Cas9 system was developed to edit genomes.
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Title: String Theory
Artist: Herman Jolly
All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing:
Adenosine. (2009). English: Artistic rendering of a T4 bacteriophage. The colours grey and orange do not signify anything, they are just used to illustrate structure. Created for Wikipedia. Retrieved from commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PhageExterior.svg
E. coli Bacteria. (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2016, from www.flickr.com/photos/niaid/16598492368/
Fioretti, B. F. Hallbauer &. (2015). English: Director, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Department of Regulation in Infection Biology. Visiting professor The Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden MIMS; www.mpiib-berlin.mpg.de/research/regulation_in_infection_biology. Retrieved from commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Emmanuelle_Charpentier.jpg
Foresman, P. S. ([object HTMLTableCellElement]). English: Line art drawing of a chimera. Retrieved from commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chimera_(PSF).jpg
Magladem96. (2014). English: Picture of DNA Base Flipping. Retrieved from commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dna-base-flipping.svg
project, C. wiki. (2014). English: Crystal Structure of Cas9 bound to DNA based on the Anders et al 2014 Nature paper. Rendition was performed using UCSF’s chimera software. Retrieved from commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cas9_Anders_DNA_bound_structure.png
Providers, P. C. (1979). English: Photomicrograph of Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria, 900x Mag. A pus specimen, viewed using Pappenheim’s stain. Last century, infections by S. pyogenes claimed many lives especially since the organism was the most important cause of puerperal fever and scarlet fever. Streptococci. Retrieved from commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Streptococcus_pyogenes.jpg
RRZEicons. (2010). English: zipper, open, close. Retrieved from commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zipper.svg
UC Berkeley. (n.d.). Gene editing with CRISPR-Cas9. Retrieved from de-tv.net/tv/video-avM1Yg5oEu0.html


  • Wow..true abomination..."I am legend"

  • Great video

  • One question, the loaded cas protein why not find and cut the CRISPR gene itself if it has the same sequence as the loaded crRNA?

  • Does it have to cut at a palindromic sequence

  • Thank you for the great video! No one has explained it better. I was wondering if this technology can be used to introduce an opsin to mammalian cells? and in general, is there a limit to what size gene we can insert?

  • What is the relationship between the CRISPR/CAS9 system and restriction enzymes? Would a bacterium have one or the other? Is one more primitive/derived?

  • You have just helped me A LOT! been trying to understand the concept of CRISPS for quite some time and this video really helped. thank you very much.

  • Near the end of the video, it would be nice if it explains how the cystic fibrosis gene is fixed, step by step. This would not only summarizes the video, but also put the step by step explanation into a visual story. Too bad.

  • Awesome

  • I have been searching for CRISPR/CAS9 videos to educate myself out of curiosity. I have been disappointed because they are either too simple or too complex. Your video is an excellent balance of the two for general population (include me). I hope there will be more people learn from your video and know how to make a scientific discovery educational yet understandable for the general public. Science will get a big boost if more people understand what it is all about.

  • you are incredible. thank you

  • You are my best Biology teacher, except for self studying. QWQ

  • 6:51 The future has come...

  • This should be the first thing you find when searching for CRISPRCas9

  • "I can't find a great CRISPR video, they are either too complex or too easy: Well sorry dude you arent really helping

  • im already tracr

  • this is the most informative and helpful video I've found yet!

  • Just amazing!!! thank you helped a LOTTTT!!!

  • awsm sir awsm explanation sir buut how this can help in editing a new embryo

  • Thanks for the video, you really explained it very well

  • Thank youuuuuuuuu! THIS WAS REALLY HELPFUL

  • this video is tremendously helpful! Thank you for the work!!!

  • fortnite is better

  • trash

  • Thanks for this. You said it best yourself; up to this point, I had only found explanations too simple or too complicated. Great video

  • I wanna be tracrRNA



  • CRISPR is like centinel in out body right?

  • www.fao.org/food/food-safety-quality/gm-foods-platform/faq-for-visitors/en/ "15. Unintended effects can result from the random insertion of DNA sequences into the plant genome which may cause disruption or silencing of existing genes, activation of silent genes, or modifications in the expression of existing genes. Unintended effects may also result in the formation of new or changed patterns of metabolites. For example, the expression of enzymes at high levels may give rise to secondary biochemical effects or changes in the regulation of metabolic pathways and/or altered levels of metabolites." Yup, this is about as accurate as a 1850's fowling gun..... and probably just as effective......

  • Nice to find a purely technical video and nothing else! Thanks

  • im already tracrRNA

  • Amazing! Thank You dearly for this video. This has been the best explanation of the system I have seen so far.

  • Wonderfully done. Will use your video in my Freshman class.

  • another complex boring video

  • This video saved me so much time, thanks!

  • Awesome!!!

  • Wow...just WOW!

  • Great video. Thank you so much for explaining Crispr/ cas9 so simply.

  • Two years later and we’re still talking about this method in classrooms. Seems like it hasn’t advanced anywhere passed academia classrooms.

  • Excelent video!

  • I used to watch you in high school and I'm listening to you again in grad school. Who would have thought? Great stuff!

  • Excellent explanation as always, thank you.

  • Excelent Explanation

  • What a wonderful world! I just did the test about CRISPR here!! www.abago.org/DE-tvTest/?v=MnYppmstxIs

  • Thank you very much. Just the right length and complexity between a Wikipedia entry and a local news story trying to explain CRISPR. Just what I needed

  • this helped soooo much thank youuuuu

  • This is exactly what popular science should be. Thank you!

  • Thank you!

  • Damn bro! You nailed this shit! Keep up the hard work and the hustle, greetings from Spain!

  • ok, but, and Im not doubting this, just trying to understand. DNA is found in each of the trillion cells in a body, how does editing the gene of one cell, going to have affect.

    • You are changing the DNA of the zygote. It's for prevention. When you are already grown up, that's too late.

  • Thanks for this nice video, it was totally understandable ;)

  • Damn. this shit is fucked yo. casually existing out there and being found only now. wack. what other things are you hiding E. coli? stop playing hard to get and show us, bitch.

  • Jennifer Doudna's name is actually a diss. DO U DNA???

  • Awesome video. To fix the DNA of someone with cystic fibrosis though, how would you actually get the CRISPR Cas 9 system to all the cells that are affected? What if you only fix the DNA of some cells?

  • 한국어 번역이 필요행 ㅜㅜ 정확히 못 알아듣겠어용

  • What's the significance of the tracrRNA in the cas9 complex?

  • The cure for cancer and aids on one hand and eugenics on the other hmmmmm

    • Eugenics is breeding, this is gene editing.

  • it was, thanks!

  • What’s the point of including repeats in crispr then, since they do nothing ?

  • I loved, thank you so much


  • Great videos for an ordinary person to understand and appreciate the complex method..

  • I am not gonna pretend that I understood it completely... I understood only one thing that it is something not comprehensible to a layman.

  • Brilliantly explained, I am layman but I understand most of it,what interesting is that we not only can cut the DNA sequence but also replace it with appropriate sequence,thats amazing. I don't have words to appreciate the intellectual capabilities of developer of this technology, and I am glad they both are women.

  • something I don't get with this: if you modify the DNA in a person's cell, what good does that do when they have trillions of cells?

  • Will it work in human gene for knock out gene which cause genetic disease.... Does some one use it in such cases?

  • I show Bozeman videos all the time to my students. You do a great job explaining things in a way most anyone can understand. I am going to share this in my biochem class in our malaria / sickle cell anemia discussion since they are looking at doing this to mosquitoes to hopefully get rid of malaria

  • My brain- 'Smells like burning'

  • simple and clear

  • SO HELPFUL!!!!!!!!!

  • Hey thanks! I'm and undergraduate student in a Neuroscience Lab, and I'm trying to complete a knockout project involving CRISPR this semester. This was super helpful, now I just need to go do it....

  • it was awsome!!!! thanks

  • de-tv.net/tv/video-wITqw3HXAHo.html

  • Would this help with HIV patients

  • Somehow i think this could be causing cancer The cas9 is detecting the wrong DNA but it’s dont know how to fix it

  • The truth about Crispr: www.naturalnews.com/2018-06-14-scientists-warn-genetic-editing-of-humans-with-crispr-technology-may-lead-to-cancer.html

  • Very clear explanations ! thanks!

  • the best !

  • I couldn't understand this topic for the life of me. Thank you so much for making it super simple

  • I never realised the point of bacteria on this earth until now😂

  • It’s amazing , thnx a lot

  • I was searching for crispy fried fish recipes but this is pretty cool.

  • how does the cas9 protein edit more than just one cell. It wouldnt do anything unless it affected all the cells that had the faulty gene.

  • Well, i think i will wait to understand this in full ramge😂

  • Thank you, whenever I come across of any of your video's I actually pick up on the content and learn it!!!! Hope you keep making videos no matter how many are already out there!!

  • Read this article on CRISPR. bio-technology.tk/cause-of-crispr-failure-identified-and-reversed/

  • I didnt get it at all maybe I'm just stupid :/

  • DNA. Computer Code. same shit

  • This is a great video! I found it helpful to check out this other video, before I watched this particular one. Cheers! de-tv.net/tv/video-3AQWMG2Lqvc.html

  • Great explanation!!


  • first things first can it EnLaRge mY PeEnUs?

  • does anyone possess this crispr system?

  • Very clearly explained!

  • it was really helpfull, and you made it really understandable

  • Damn!!!! This was perfect!

  • Also iga key factor in the beginning stages of life the only way to collect its is when the water breaks it's also filled with bacteria stem cells that haven't even been discovered yet,that resist all kinds of infections fungus and bad bacteria.

  • This inefficient and will fail once you start messing with a genome other things will break down at the micro level and lead to symptoms of this in and at the macro level of biology.They tried this years ago and it failed only way to evolve is to enhance the immune system to eventually become so virulent that it can destroy viruses fungus infections and bacteria and even parasites.Colostrum is the only thing in nature that can do this that's why some people a are immune to even aids because of immunoglobulins that haven't been discovered yet.

  • I didn't quite get how the protein is engineered to insert the proper gene. Cutting out makes sense, but it's not clear how the cas9 system is used to insert the new gene.